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Bijan’s Oriental Rugs
Hand-made Oriental Rugs, selected with care and sold with Integrity.

Oriental Rugs - A buyer’s Guide

Oriental Rugs Weaving Groups

  • Hastrud
    Moutainous region in the Kurdish part of western Persia which produces fairly coarse but attractive Herati design rugs, sometimes marketed under the name of Shah Savan of Amroullah. Output is quite small; rugs are also produced in designs with distinct Caucasian flavor.
  • Husseinabad
    Village in the Hamadan region of West central central Persia which produces medium to very good quality village rugs, usually in Herati designs. It is the largest rug producer in the area, and better quality Herati design rugs from the region are often marketed as Husseiabads.
  • Hyderabad
    A town north east of Karachi in Pakistan, which produces medium grade Mori Bokhara and Anatolian style rugs; its rug is rarely marketed under the name of the town.
  • Islamabad
    Large town in northern Pakistan which makes medium to good quality rugs, sometimes sold as Islamabads, but more often as Pak. Persian rugs.
  • Isparta
    Below average Anatolian rugs produced in pastel toned Anatolian, Persian and even Chinese designs.  Older Isparta (or Sparta) rugs were considered some of the finest rugs from south west Anatolia; contemporary rugs, although of poorer quality, are nevertheless attractive furnishing pieces.
  • Izmir
    Important seaport in western Anatolia which acted as a major distribution center for the carpet trade.  Very few rugs were actually made in Izmir (formerly Smyrna), but its name was, and still is applied to rugs from neighboring weaving groups.
  • Jokar
    Small village in the Hamadan region of west central Persia which produces very fine rugs, mainly in the Herati design, comparable to the best grade Husseinabad rugs.
  • Joshaghan
    A village in central Persia noted for its finely woven rugs and distinctive design, which features an allover pattern of flowering diamonds surrounding a central diamond medallion. They are also produced in Mina-Khani and Harshang schemes. Finely knotted on cotton warps, in a low to medium cropped good quality  wool pile, they are usually rather expensive. Due to their generally high standards of workmanship and the fact that production is small, they are considered very sound investments. However, quality varies and the fineness of the knotting should be carefully considered before deciding on a price.  The better quality rugs are sometimes referred to as Meimeh or Murcecar (a nearby village). The Joshagha design is occasionally copied by other weaving groups, particularly India.
  • Jozan
    A village in the Malayer region of west central Persia, which produces a number of rugs in rich primary colors with a central medallion on a Herati or Shah Abbas field. They often bear a close resemblance to Sarough rugs, and are sometimes marketed as Jozan Sarough, but can be distinguished by their use of plain colored  wefts; Sarough rug’s weft are almost always blue.  Very good quality and expensive, but with a good resale value.
  • Karabagh
    Southernmost region of the Caucasus, renowned fro extremely decorative rugs which often featured French inspired allover floral schemes. They are no longer made, and modern Caucasian rugs rarely employ Karabagh designs, but a few older examples are still on the market.  They are quite expensive, but less so than many other Caucasian rugs.
  • Karaja
    Karaja rugs are made in and around the village of that name in the Azerbaijan province of north west Persia. The proximity of the Caucasus has had a profound effect on Persian weaving groups in the region, and a strong Caucasian influence can be clearly discerned in Karaja designs.  They fall somewhere between Ardebil and Heriz, with a tendency to use repeating amulet/medallions similar to those of the Ardebil weavers, but with much more intricate, Heriz style field decorations.  They are quite coarsely woven and correspond to a medium grade Ardebil quality.
  • Karapinar
    A village near Koniain southern Anatolia noted for what is probably the most overtly heraldic of all Anatolian designs; a huge central medallion form dominating the entire field. They are very similar in character, appearance and price to Kars. Karapinar also makes some Konia rugs.
  • Kashmar
    Small town in the Khorassan province of east Persia, between Meshed and Birjand, noted for fine quality rugs in the unusual Zirhaki or “under the earth” design.  Kashmar is also unusal in that it tends to make more carpet size rugs than smaller rugs. In addition to Zirhaki scheme, medallion and corner rugs are produced in the Kashan style.  Fairly expensive, but generally well made and very attractive (particularly after the brighter colors have had time to mellow). Zirhaki designs in particular are good investments.
  • Kavak
    Below average quality Anatolian village rugs which specialize in tree of life prayer rug designs.
  • Kazak
    Region of the Caucasus, renowned for its magnificent, overtly heraldic rugs. Old Kazak rugs are extremely rare and expensive, but a number of modern Caucasian, and Anatolian rugs are made in traditional Kazak designs.  Also the name of the quality modern Caucasian rug.
  • Khamariah
    A village near mirzapur in India which produces low to medium grade rugs in Persian, Caucasian, French and Chinese designs.
  • Khamseh
    Name of two totally unconnected weaving groups.  The first is a confederation of nomadic tribes in the Fars province of southern Persia, who produce very attractive tribal rugs similar in appearance and character to those of the Ghashghai rugs.  The second group belong to Hamadan collective group and produce rugs similar to those of the Hashtrud.
  • Khorassan
    Vast province in eastern Persia which encompasses several weaving groups, including Birjand and Meshed.  The term is usually applied to old rugs from the region where exact attribution in unclear, but is sometimes applied to contemporary rugs. Weaving is often of a high standard, but poorer rugs are also made.  The region is generally considered to be the home of the Herati motif, and Herati deign Indian rugs are sometimes marketed as Indo Khorassans.
  • Kolyai
    Made by Kurdish tribesmen in the Bidjar region of Kurdistan in west Persia, they spring from a similar design heritage as the universally renowned Bidjar rugs. However, Kolyai weaving is much more primitive, and their rugs are rather rough hewn in appearance and less durable. They are nevertheless attractive, hard wearing and collectable, and considerably cheaper than Bidjars.
  • Konia
    Made in the southern Anatolian town of Konia, using designs based on those evolved in the nearby town of Ladik, they are sometimes referred to as Konia/Ladik rugs.  Persian, mainly Tabriz, and Caucasian designs are also produced in generally more pastel shades.  The wool is a little softer than that used in many other parts of Anatolia and they are not particularly finely knotted. They are, however, attractive and usually well made, and belong to the medium price range of Anatolian rugs.
  • Kula
    Decorative rugs of fair to medium quality, made in and around the city of Kula in western Anatolia.  The wool is rather soft comparable to that used in Pakistan,  Some traditional Kula and Ghiordes prayer rug designs are still woven in the area, but most rugs employ stylized floral schemes, usually with a central medallion, in pastel shades. Kulas are in the low price range.
  • Kurd
    Made by Kurdish tribesmen, and usually marketed under the name of the specific tribe (Kolyai, etc.) or village (Bidjar, etc.); rugs that can not be definitely attributed are sometimes sold as Kurd or Kurdish rugs.  The Kurds occupy vast and diverse areas, form eastern Anatolia through Persia and into the Caucasus, but the main concentration of rug producing tribes is in western Persia.  Designs, color schemes and weaving standards vary considerably, with each tribe or sub-tribe producing its own distinctive work, but they are generally of a high standard, both structurally and aesthetically, and Kurdish wool is very good.
  • Lahore
    A city generally regarded as the pre eminent rug producing center of Pakistan. Its rugs are sometimes sold as Lahores, but more often as Pak. Persian design rugs.
  • Lamberan
    A small region near Heriz in north west Persia, which produces brightly colored, geometric design rugs similar to those produced in Ardebil, Meshkin, and Karaja, with a distinct Caucasian flavor, but can be quite attractive, and are usually comparable with lower quality Heriz and Ardebil rugs.
  • Luri
    Tribesmen found throughout Persia mainly in the west of the country and the Fars province in the south, who produce superb nomadic pile rugs. In quality, their rugs is comparable with that of the Kurds, but Luri designs are usually based on a distinctive “hooked” medallion.  Most Luri rugs are marketed under the name of the specific village or tribe, but rugs that can not be specifically attributed are sometimes referred to simply as Luri rugs.
  • Mahal
     Coarsely woven rugs from the Arak region of west central Persia, but more closely akin, in both quality and appearance, to those produced around Hamadan.  They are usually made in room size carpets and belong to the medium range of Hamadan rugs.  However, Ziegler Mahals belong to a different category altogether; they were made under the auspices of the Ziegler Company during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, using European inspired designs, and are now extremely collectable and expensive. Today, Pakistani weavers have recreated Ziegler Mahal schemes and rugs to similar textures and improved color palette for Western home furnishing market..
  • Mamluk
    Made in Egypt during the Ottoman Empire with designs based on a central octagon.
  • Marasali
    Extremely attractive Caucasian rugs no longer produced.  Older rugs are sometimes found, but are expensive.
  • Mehriban
    Name of two independent Persian weaving groups belonging to the Heriz and Hamadan collective groupings.
  • Milas
    Village rugs made in and around the town of Milas in southwest Anatolia, they are some of the most attractive and authentically Anatolian rugs produced in the region.  They are reasonably finely knotted on woolen or cotton foundations usuing coarse but durable pile wool clipped medium to low. The most popular and distinctive designs features a stylized tree of life motif or flowering diamond within a prayer rug format.  The borders are broad and contain elegant, highly stylized floral, vegetal and geometric motifs. The palette is usually pastel with harmonious interplays of pale umber, sienna, gray,rust, ochre and a unique shade of greenish yellow.  Indian weavers now make copies of Milas designs.  Milas rugs represent very good value for money, but do not have a particularly secure resale value.
  • Mir
    The village of Mal-e-Mir in west central Persia gave its name to the Mir-i-Boteh or Mir design rugs. It no longer produces rugs, but those it did produce are now highly prized collectors’ rugs.  Similar rugs are still made in the surrounding Serabend district. Their Boteh is normally larger and less delicate and is often employed in conjunction with a diamond shaped central medallion. Serabends are neither as finely knotted nor as aesthetically accomplished as Mirs, but they are nevertheless attractive and durable. The Serabend palette is mainly confined to reds blues, burnt orange, ivory, pale greens and ochres,  Serabend rugs are made in the medium price range and their durability and village character could make them sound long term investments. Indian weavers make copies of both Mir and Serabend design rugs.
  • Mirzapur
    A town in northeast India which produces low to medium grade rugs, generally inferior to Jaipur rugs, in a wide range of mainly Persian design rugs.

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